ADJECTIVE PHRASES
K. Hanson

Adjective clauses can be reduced to adjective phrases under certain grammatical conditions.  In the examples below, you will see a noun modified by an adjective clause and then an example of the same noun modified by the shorter adjective phrase.  The red dots indicate that the main clause is incomplete as you are focusing only on clause-to-phrase reduction in these examples.  For such reductions to occur, the relative pronoun must be a subject pronoun in all cases.

Grammatical Condition

Clause

Phrase

Verb in adjective clause is an active verb People who live in large cities... people living in large cities...
Verb in adjective clause is progressive Students who are studying at urban campuses... Students studying at urban campuses...
Verb in adjective clause is passive Children who are born with congenital heart disease... Children born with congenital heart disease... (the preferred style)
Adj. clause has the verb be + adjective + infinitive complement Children who are most likely to recover from serious illness... Children most likely to recover from serious illness...
Adj. clause has another name for the modified noun (an appositive) Dr. Francisco Ramirez, who is chief pediatric surgeon at Children's Hospital,... Dr. Francisco Ramirez, chief pediatric surgeon at Children's Hospital,... the appositive phrase is preferred style and is non-restrictive.

Listen to reductions of adjective clauses

Find out more about verbals, click  verbals under Parts of Speech. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/index2.html#parts  

Find out more about appositives. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_appos.html

READING CHALLENGE

The following news article provides information about an important new medical advance in the treatment of heart disease.  The first time you read the article, read for information.  Then take the reading quiz below.

The second time you read the article, use it as a grammar search and review.  Print out the article and follow these directions:

    1. [Bracket] all adjective clauses and underline the nouns they modify.  

    2. Put (parentheses) around adjective phrases and underline the nouns   they modify. 

    3.  Circle appositives. Underline the nouns they identify or modify.

    4.  Identify adjective clauses, phrases, and appositives as Restrictive (R) or Nonrestrictive (NR).  Write this information in the margins of the reading.

 You will find examples of each type of adjective phrase listed above.  Open the Check Grammar Search link only after you have reread the article and searched for adjective clauses and phrases of the various types listed above.

Read the article

Take the Reading Quiz

Print the article, do the grammar search, and fill in table 1 and table 2, which you will need to print off.

Check Grammar Search

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